Dread History:
The African Diaspora,
Ethiopianism, and Rastafari

Derminte and Bongo Shephan, Rasta elders with the chalice (ganja pipe)

In the last halft of the 19th century, contract laborers from India introduced ganja (marijuana), along with other plants, to Jamaica. Today, marijuana is used medicinally and sacramentally by the Rastafari. In this photo, Rasta Elders smoke ganja in a pipe known as a chalice, which resembles the Indian pipe known as a chillum.

photograph by Jake Homiak, Smithsonian Institution